Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, Nov. 1, 2016, by Christine Grant and Patrick Keegan.
http://neea.org/docs/default-source/reports/energy-efficiency-financing-barriers-and-opportunities-in-the-small-utility-market.pdf

"High upfront costs and a lack of easily accessible financing are commonly cited as the key barriers to investments in energy efficiency (EE). If designed and implemented optimally, EE financing can be an important tool for catalyzing EE market transformation."