Prepared by Brubaker & Associates, Inc. and the Regulatory Assistance Project for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL/TM-2013/583, Feb. 2014.
http://raponline.org/document/download/id/7020

"Standby, or partial requirements, service is the set of retail electric products for customers who operate onsite, non-emergency generation. These rates represent the cost of services utilities provide when customer generation is not operating or is insufficient to meet full load. Trends show that distributed generation is not rare anymore and that old ideas about risk have been replaced by utility operator confidence in anticipated performance. This paper presents the results of an analytical assessment of the rates, terms, and conditions for standby service in five states: Arkansas, Colorado, New Jersey, Ohio, and Utah."